Induced pluripotent stem cells also known as iPS cells or iPSCs are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells. Pluripotent stem cells hold promise in the field of regenerative medicine. The most well-known type of pluripotent stem cell is the embryonic stem cell.
The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells iPSCs from somatic cells demonstrated that adult mammalian cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state by the enforced expression of a few embryonic transcription factors. This discovery has raised fundamental questions about the mechanisms by which transcription factors influence the epigenetic conformation and differentiation potential of cells during reprogramming and normal development. In addition, iPSC technology has provided researchers with a unique tool to derive disease-specific stem cells for the study and possible treatment of degenerative disorders with autologous cells.
Reprogramming allows us to turn any cell of the body into a pluripotent stem cell. Its discovery in surprised many scientists and changed our thinking about how cells work. Reprogramming has opened up exciting possibilities for studying and treating disease.
Skip navigation. InKazutoshi Takahashi and Shinya Yamanaka reprogrammed mice fibroblast cells, which can produce only other fibroblast cells, to become pluripotent stem cellswhich have the capacity to produce many different types of cells. Takahashi and Yamanaka also experimented with human cell cultures in
Fortino, Jordan Greenberg and Herman S. Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells defined by their abilities to self-renew and differentiate into mature cells.
On August 25, Cell published Kazutoshi Takahashi and Shinya Yamanaka's work on the induction of pluripotency in embryonic and adult fibroblasts. While the technology has not yet achieved therapeutic application it has however left a mark in the pharmaceutics industry and many research laboratories. The history of developmental biology and consequently that of stem cell research has been and still is ripe with controversy.
The act of reprogramming cells to make them as capable as ones from embryos apparently can result in aberrant cells that age and die abnormally, suggesting there is a long way to go to prove such cells are really like embryonic stem cells and can find use in therapies. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, able to create all cell types, save more embryonic tissue. To avoid the controversy surrounding these cells, scientists around the world have explored reprogramming mature cells to make them just as potent, with the hope being that such induced pluripotent stem iPS cells might one day help replace diseased or damaged tissue.
July, Three years ago, research teams in the United States and Japan reported that they had reprogrammed adult human cells to form pluripotent stem cells—cells capable of differentiating into all cell types. Scientists were elated. Researchers working with the cells still must countenance certain ethical concerns, and they may also face newly discovered scientific hurdles. At Hopkins, such issues have prompted a change in the committee that was formerly charged with overseeing human embryonic stem cell research.
An important achievement in stem cell research was recognized inwhen the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to two scientists who transformed the field: Shinya Yamanaka and John Gurdon. The impact of this breakthrough opened myriad possibilities for stem cell research and continues to propel the field forward; both men will be addressing the ISSCR annual meeting, June, in Los Angeles, Calif. Seeds of Discovery In the s, the early days of stem cell research, John Gurdon was a student in the U.
Jump to navigation. Recently, pioneering work has revealed that terminally differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed to generate induced pluripotent stem iPS cells via overexpression of a defined set of transcription factors. These iPS cells are morphologically and phenotypically similar to embryonic stem ES cells and thus offer exciting possibilities in stem cell research and regenerative medicine.